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Consultancy to assess coastal community vulnerability to climate change in the SWIO region, and the role of nature based solutions especially mangroves


Title: Consultancy to assess coastal community vulnerability to climate change in the SWIO region, and the role of nature based solutions especially mangroves.


Project reference: MG 2061.00


AO – 022/TNR/2023

  1. Background


The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) Seascape has been identified as one of the priority places in Africa to achieve WWF’s global goals. WWF defines the SWIO Seascape to five countries from South Africa to Kenya and Madagascar. It is a global centre of biodiversity, covering 11,000 km2 of coral reef (equivalent to 4% of the world’s coral reefs and 35% of the total reef area within the entire Indian Ocean) and containing 300 coral species (38% of the global diversity). On current trajectories, scientists project that by 2050 only 10% of the planet’s coral reefs will survive.  Coral reefs are associated with about a quarter of the world’s marine biodiversity even though they occupy less than 0.1% of the world’s oceans.  Millions of the world’s poorest people are vulnerable to the demise of coral reef ecosystems. Their collapse would lead to far-ranging consequences including a rapid decline in fish stocks that would threaten nutrition, health and livelihoods for many of the world’s most vulnerable coastal communities. 

Furthermore, mangrove ecosystems are amongst the most biologically productive ecosystems on earth. These ecosystems are crucial given the multiple benefits they are providing to nature and people. The South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) seascape is one of the regions that host a large surface of mangroves. The state of mangrove in the Western Indian Ocean (2022) highlighted that this region is home to 25% of Africa’s mangroves and about 5% of all mangroves in the world, of which 41% are found in Mozambique, 37% in Madagascar, 15% in Tanzania and 7% in Kenya. The economic value from fisheries and coastal protection provided by these ecosystems approximate several billion US$ per year, while also supporting the livelihoods of 40 million coastal people. However, this region lost 3.9% of its mangroves over the past 24 years (1996-2020) mainly due to unsustainable wood extraction, land clearance for agriculture and the impacts of cyclones and flooding. 


Over the past years, climate change is becoming serious threats for Africa’s key ecosystems and people. The IPCC 6th Assessment Report (2022) highlighted the predicted impacts for Africa, which is quite alarming. The SWIO seascape is the third most affected region by climate change in the world. The region has experienced temperature rise (leading to coral bleaching), drop of annual precipitation, sea level rise, intense cyclones, prolonged drought and flooding. These have a direct impact on coastal communities and the ecosystems they depend upon including mangroves but also on the livelihoods of local communities that are largely dependent on them. These climate threats are also coupled with disaster issues where countries in the SWIO region are the most affected. 


As raised by the The World Disaster Report (2020), the two tropical cyclones Idai and Kenneth were among the most devastating cyclones in Mozambique and other WIO countries, including damages to people and mangrove ecosystems. The most recent cyclone was Freddy only a matter of weeks ago. Beside all of these threats and impacts, it is well recognized mangrove play a pivotal role as nature based solutions both for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, bringing benefits to communities and for nature. 


There is growing evidence and resources on the climate-mangrove nexus as well as initiatives to drive tangible work around this area, but still require further assessment and understanding to build a more harmonized approach at the SWIO level. WWF is implementing a NORAD funded project on mangrove management for climate risk resilience and improved livelihoods in the SWIO seascape (particularly in Mozambique and Tanzania, supported by a regional component) that aims to strengthen community management of important mangrove areas and strengthen climate change adaptation in coastal communities and ecosystems.  As part of the regional component, WWF is hiring consultants to undertake a desktop analysis of coastal community vulnerability to climate change in the SWIO region, and the role of mangroves as nature based solutions, in order to identify the most critical gaps and the most pressing needs to direct future action. 

  1. Objective and Activities


The main objective of this consultancy is to determine the vulnerability of coastal communities in the SWIO region to climate and disaster risks, what climate adaptation and disaster risk initiatives and opportunities are in place including nature based solutions at a local, national and regional level. In addition to SWIO as scope, this mandate will have specific focus on mangroves.


The consultancy activities will comprise the following:

  • Undertake a desktop assessment of  climate change and disaster risks within the SWIO region, particularly the impact on vulnerable communities and coastal ecosystems (with emphasis on mangroves)  and highlight the gaps;

  • Mapping relevant coastal climate adaptation initiatives, DRR and related NbS work including highlighting best practices, key challenges, gaps and recommendations ; 

  • Identifying existing tools relevant for mangroves on climate adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and related nature based solutions including monitoring framework;

  • Screening opportunities in terms of partnership, funding, policy and cross-learning to leverage more impactful work on climate adaptation, DRR and related nature based solutions within the SWIO region.

  • Update the SWIO climate risk screening tool.

  1. Deliverables:

The following deliverables are expected: 

  1. Inception report with detailed methodology and timeline 5 days after contract starting date and kick-off meeting with WWF;

  2. A maximum of 30 pages report : 

    1. Sections to be submitted as per description below. Consolidated draft due 60 days after contract starts; 

    2. Final report due 75 days after contract starts including the updated SWIO climate risk screening tool

Proposed report structure for SWIO report with respective deadlines (to be discussed with WWF during the inception meeting) is described below:

  1. Key findings - 2 pages 

  2. Key recommendations (for implementation over the next 3 years) -2-3 pages

  3. Synthesis of the current understanding of climate and disaster risks, covering an ecological (with focus on mangroves) and coastal community vulnerability perspectives, including relevant maps, clearly identifying  the most important places most at risk - 5 pages (due 30 days after contract starts)

  4. Assessment of current coastal climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction mechanisms and initiatives in mangrove associated habitats (including displayed on a map, NbS potential, etc.), including identification of gaps and opportunities  - 5 pages (due 45 days after contract starts)

  5. Assessment of useful tool and approaches, including MEL - 5 pages (due 60 days after contract starts)

  6. Assessment of funding, partnership and policy gaps - 5 pages (due 60 days after contract starts)

  7. References (comprehensive list of references used, plus highlighting really key references)

  8. Appendix - updated SWIO climate risks screening tool


All requested deliverables shall be written in English.

Three virtual meetings will be organized to provide comments to the deliverables in addition to written comments. The final report should consider all comments and recommendations from WWF.


WWF Technical Supervisor will have ten (10) days to validate each deliverable. In the event of late submission of reports/products, WWF reserves the right to deduct 1‰ per day of delay from the total due fees.

  1. Duration


The expected start date of the contract is 10 May 2023. This assignment will be spread over a period of 3 months from the contract starting date, and final deliverable should be received by 04 August 2023. The consultancy should not exceed 40 working days.

  1. Required Qualifications

  • Regional/international consultant or firm, which must be comprised of qualified experts;

  • Relevant experience and demonstrated track record in similar assignment;

  • Demonstrated understanding of climate and disaster context in Africa and the SWIO region, in a marine and coastal context;

  • Strong understanding of mangrove dynamics and stakeholders within the SWIO region;

  • Ability to collect, analyze data to compile and synthesize information in coherent and succinct formats;

  • Ability to write and speak clearly and effectively, including the ability to draft reports in a concise style and communicate complex information to various stakeholders (policy makers mainly) in written and verbal modes;

  • Ability to plan independently and manage conflicting priorities, and work under pressure;

  • Excellent written and oral communication skills in English.

  1. Coordination and supervision

This work will be realized under the supervision of the WWF Africa Adaptation Hub Coordinator, and SWIO Coastal Communities pillar coordinator.

  1. Application 


Those interested, either as individuals, consortium or institutions, are required to submit the following by email to procurement@wwf.mg with the reference “AO-022/TNR/2023 Consultancy to develop the profile of coastal community vulnerability to climate and disaster risks in the SWIO region and mangrove areas including nature based solutions and opportunities in subject line delivered, not later than 03 May 2023 at 17.00 pm EAT time with:

  1. A technical proposal outlining: 

  • Supplier information

  • Understanding of the request and describing the proposed approach and methodology to deliver the mandate

  • Response to the technical and functional requirements 

  • Structure of the proposed team including resume, description of roles and qualifications. Template for the resume is available on the link https://bit.ly/2H2M8Ed  (or request to be sent to procurement@wwf.mg)

  • Necessary relevant information showing past experience in related field (cases of relevant prior work),

  1. A financial proposal in USD


The budget should give details of consultancy days as well as daily rates, along with management secretariat costs. Daily rates and expenditures should be shown separately. The offer should also show tax-exempt and taxable costs. Where costs are tax-exempt, explanations should be provided.  (Please note that any costs for developing proposals in response to this assignment are not reimbursable)


WWF will directly pay for all expenses related to travels (if there is any), so those expenses should not appear in the consultant offer. The rate of Per diem and Accommodation should not exceed WWF’s rate and the airfare is based on Economic class.

  1. Evaluation of Applications


An evaluation committee will review and rank the received offers.  The evaluation of the technical proposal being completed prior to any price proposal being opened and compared.

Applications will be evaluated as follows: 

  • Understanding and technical soundness and merit of methodology to execute the assignment (30 points); 

  • Organizational capacity and expertise to execute the assignment (30 points);

  • Past experience and performance relevant to the assignment (30 points);

  • Time table (10 points)


The adjudication returns to the technical best offer (among those higher than or equal to 60/100) whose financial offer does not exceed the budget available. The possibility of negotiation is not excluded in conditions that the technical best offer makes a financial offer exceeding available budget.

  1. Notes on canceling the current tender 


The current offer may be canceled under the following conditions: 

  • Competitiveness is not adequate;

  • No offers meet the requirements ;

  • Received offers significantly overreach the proposed budget. 

  1. Conditions of the tender


The proposed work will be carried out under contract attached as an annex to the present TORs. The contact will be drawn up after the offer has been confirmed. The consultant will assume all fiscal responsibilities relative to his/her tax status. As an independent employee, the consultant is responsible for the payment of any tax that might be demanded within the framework of this agreement, assuming that he is able to justify he is in good standing and up to date vis-à-vis administrative and tax authorities; otherwise, and in accordance with the law, WWF is obliged to withhold at source on the amount of its services or fees / bills, the percentage to be paid to the taxes authorities. For the particular case of non-resident consultants, the consultant is subject to the payment of the Tax on Income from Non-Resident (under Article 01.01.14.'s Tax Code CGI) up to 10% (or 5 % if based in Mauritius). A remark on this tax should appear in the financial offer.


The consultant will be subject to WWF management procedures at all times. 

  1. Payment of fees


Payments will be made in three installments as follows:

  1. 30% of the total amount of fees, upon submission of deliverable n#1), and its acceptance by the Supervisor; and submission and approval of an invoice detailing services rendered;

  2. 70% of the total amount of fees, upon submission of deliverable n#02) and its acceptance by the Supervisor; and submission and approval of an invoice detailing services rendered;

The invoice must contain the following information: name and address of the consultant, invoice date, unique invoice number, amount of fees free of charges, amount of taxes, service rendered, deliverable and/or number of hours charged, period in which service was provided, bank details. 


WWF cannot grant in advance honorary fees. Though, field trip expenses, in accordance with WWF procedures, are payable in advance once the consultancy contract is established. 

  1. Importance notice

  • Applications received after the deadline will be rejected.

  • Incomplete applications will not be processed.

  • WWF MDCO has the right to modify the application conditions at any time during the application process. All applicants will be notified about such a modification.

  • Review of applications will start immediately after the deadline by the hiring committee.

  • All applications will be treated with strict confidentiality

  • WWF will not discriminate based on gender, age, ethnic background or religion. All qualified applicants are encouraged to apply including women, people from a minority background and people with disabilities.

  1. Fraud, corruption and conflict of interest declaration


Candidates have read entirely the WWF Policy for interests and the WWF Policy Conflicts for Prevention and the Survey of Fraud and Corruption. He understands his responsibilities to comply, and fully commits to it. He acknowledges he has no conflicts, as described in the WWF's Policy on Conflicts of Interest: https://bit.ly/2H2M8Ed 

Candidates must respect the professional rules of conduct without any reproach in the conduct of its mandate. Furthermore, the contractor will ensure not to tarnish the image of the WWF execution of its mandate. WWF gives the right to terminate the agreement in proven cases of misconduct that can harm the WWF.


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Consultancy to assess coastal community vulnerability to climate change in the SWIO region, and the role of nature based solutions especially mangroves