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5 points about COP28

  1. What is COP28 ?
 COP28, or the 28th Conference of the Parties, is an international meeting that brings together countries from around the world to discuss climate change issues. It is a continuation of the efforts undertaken under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed by 198 countries around the world including Madagascar, since the first Conference of the Parties or COP1 held in 1995 in Berlin, Germany.
The 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) held in 2015 in France made history with the adoption of the Paris Agreement.  This agreement commits signatory states to describing their own targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to keep global warming below 2°C compared to the pre-industrial era.
COP28, which will take place from November 30 to December 12 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is crucial in view of the serious global repercussions of climate change. The search for sustainable solutions is becoming urgent.
  1. Nationally determined contributions
 These targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the Paris Agreement are known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). They are to be revised every five years to increase emission reduction ambitions and adopt broader adaptation measures.
For example, by 2030, Madagascar plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 14% by increasing forest cover and controlling deforestation and forest degradation. Through the REDD+ mechanism, the country also plans to achieve 61 MtCO2 of emission reductions by 2030 in the LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) sector. This means achieving 61 million tonnes of CO2, the equivalent amount of carbon dioxide from other greenhouse gases that would cause equivalent warming (Source: REDD+ National Strategy). REDD+ is an acronym that stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. This mechanism provides technical and financial guidance to help countries reduce the human pressure on forests that leads to greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the results of emissions reductions achieved through reduced deforestation, countries can receive payments, which in turn will encourage them to maintain their efforts.
  1. Climate change adaptation  
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), adaptation to climate change refers to the adjustment of natural or human systems in response to current or future climatic stimuli or their effects, in order to mitigate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.
  1. Working with nature to adapt to climate change
The Tsimanampetsotse Nosy Ve Androka Biosphere Reserve boasts ecosystems essential to the livelihood of coastal communities in the Mahafaly landscape, in the Atsimo Andrefana region. Coral reefs, lagoons and mangroves mainly support small-scale artisanal and community fishing, which provide 82% of household income. However, various pressures, notably destructive fishing practices and the conversion of farmers and herders to fishing activities, amplified by unfavorable weather conditions, threaten these ecosystems and the services they provide. It is therefore vital to maintain and increase their resilience, and reduce their vulnerability in order to preserve their ecological role. To achieve this, the emphasis will be on restoring coral reefs and preserving their associated marine and coastal habitats. In addition, the resilience of vulnerable communities most impacted by climate change, who depend entirely on this biosphere reserve for their livelihood, will need to be strengthened. This will be achieved through the development of sustainable livelihoods and value chains, and the inclusion of migrants in these livelihood development and resource management activities.
WWF is focusing its efforts on enhancing the role of this biosphere reserve, its critical ecosystems and the services provided to communities. The good practices derived from these actions will serve as a basis for promoting an ecosystem-based approach that takes greater account of climate challenges. In other words, resilient ecosystems can help communities adapt to the effects of climate change while improving their livelihoods.