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Five things to know about COP25

The twenty-fifth United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP25, is the global decision-making instance dedicated to climate issues.

What is COP25?
Member countries of the United Nations, known as the Parties, have several annual conferences. Each of these conferences is dedicated to specific themes and their objective for countries is to decide together on the actions to be implemented to move the world forward. For example, there is a Conference of the Parties, a COP, dedicated to biodiversity, the fifteenth edition of which will take place in China in 2020.
The twenty-fifth United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP25, is the global decision-making instance  dedicated to climate issues. It will take place from 2 to 13 December 2019 in Madrid, Spain.
Why are COPs important?
Beyond negotiations and decision-making, COPs also serve to measure the efforts and actions of member countries. The list of decisions and actions that each country has committed to take to limit global warming and address climate change is called Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs. For example, industrialized countries have committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and developing cleaner economic models by 2030.
Where do we stand since the Paris Agreements in 2015?
Let us remember that in 2015, at COP21 in Paris, France, world leaders agreed that if global warming exceeds 1.5°C compared to pre-industrial levels, it would be dramatic for Nature. They have also committed to ambitious CDNs to limit this global warming. The 2018 IPCC report showed that there is a serious gap between Paris' ambitions in 2015 and the actions taken by the countries of the world on the climate issue over the past four years.
And Madagascar in all this?
Madagascar is the seventh most vulnerable country to climate change in the world in 2017 according to the Global Climate Risk Index. According to the General Direction of Meteorology (GDM) in 2019, climate data recorded in Madagascar between 1961 and 2017 indicate that annual precipitation is declining, particularly in the East and Southeast ; maximum and minimum temperatures have also increased (respectively 0.04°C per year and 0.05°C per year); and between 1993 and 2017, sea level has increased by 1.57 mm/year.
The main Contributions Determined at the National level of Madagascar, announced at COP21 in Paris:
In 2015, among our main CDNs, our country committed to increasing its greenhouse gas absorption capacity by 32% by 2030. To achieve this, Madagascar is focusing on restoring natural forests and strengthening habitat connectivity, among other things. For Madagascar and the countries of the world, COP25 is now the time for action to raise climate ambitions and implement our commitments.