Climate change will have dramatic effects on the world’s oceans. Globally, changes in atmospheric conditions are being accompanied by changes in sea level, ocean temperature, current systems, biologically important ocean features such as upwelling, and the basic chemistry of the oceans. An assessment of the vulnerability of Madagascar’s marine biodiversity which was initiated in January 2008 by CI, WWF and USAID clearly identified that the effects of climate change are already being felt at a local level. To ensure the long-term survival of the nation’s marine biodiversity, further research into the vulnerability of Madagascar’s marine environments to the impacts of climate change will be required to elaborate the expected responses of marine species and ecosystems to future climate conditions, and the feasible actions that can be taken to ensure the resilience and adaptation of the country’s biodiversity. This information will form the first step towards developing a conservation response to climate change by providing a foundation on which to plan and make educated decisions about the best ways to protect and better manage natural and social systems in response to climate change. This project built on work carried out in a previous MacArthur Trust funded project to improve the understanding of marine biodiversity vulnerability to climate change and support the integration of climate change considerations into the planning of the national marine protected areas (MPAs) network.